Understanding Inflation Meaning & Types: Monitor Prices for Financial Stability & Purchasing Power Protection

Economically, inflation meaning is an increase in the overall cost of goods and services in a country. Each currency unit may purchase fewer products and services as the general prices rise. Hence, it is associated with a decline in purchasing power.

Inflation Meaning

Inflation meaning the price increase, indicates the gradual loss of purchasing power. You can gauge the rate of loss of purchasing power by tracking the average price growth of a sample of products and services throughout the years. One unit of currency has less purchasing power as a result of the price increase, which is stated as a percentage. As prices decline and purchasing power rises, this is deflation.

Finding the overall impact of increases in price for a range of goods and services is the goal of monitoring inflation. It enables the representation of the rise in the prices for goods and services in an economy as a single value over some time. 

Fewer goods and services may be obtained for a certain amount of money as prices rise. This decline in purchasing power impacts people’s standard of life, eventually inhibiting economic growth. According to economists’ general understanding, prolonged inflation meaning is seen when a country’s money supply expands faster than its economy.

What Causes Inflation?

Money supply growth triggers inflation, albeit many different economic factors might contribute to this. The monetary authorities can increase a country’s supply of money by: 

  • Printing more money to distribute to the public 
  • Legally reducing the value of money or legal currency 
  • Obtaining government bonds from financial institutions to generate new credits for reserve accounts through the financial system (the most common method) 
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These circumstances result in the money’s eventual loss of purchasing power. This leads to three types of inflation: cost-push, built-in, and demand-pull inflation.

Types of Inflation

Inflation meaning can be understood better once we comprehend its three types.

The three types of inflation are:

Demand-pull Inflation

Demand-pull inflation meaning is when the economy’s overall demand for goods and services rises more quickly than its ability to produce them. This occurs as credit and money become more widely available. Demand increases as a result of prices increasing.

When individuals become wealthier, consumers are happier as a result of this. Hence, more money is spent, which raises prices. More demand and a less adaptable supply lead to a demand-supply mismatch, which raises prices.

Cost-push Effect

Cost-push inflation meaning is a result of price increases, spreading through the inputs used in production. Costs for all intermediate goods increase as more money and credit are directed towards the commodities or other asset markets. This is particularly clear whenever a bad economic shock affects the supply of crucial commodities. 

These modifications raise the cost of the finished goods or services, which increases consumer prices. For example, when the money supply is increased, oil prices experience a speculative boom. This implies that the price of energy may increase and affect consumer prices, as shown in various inflation indicators.

Built-in Inflation

Responsive assumptions, or the notion that individuals anticipate present inflation rates to persist in the future, are related to built-in inflation meaning. People may expect an ongoing increase at a similar rate in the future as the price of products and services grows. Workers may therefore request higher costs or wages to keep up their standard of living. The cost of goods and services rises as a result of their increased earnings, and this wage-price cycle keeps going as one element drives the other and vice versa.

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Demand-pull, cost-push, and built-in inflation are three sources of inflation. They allow us to have a better understanding of inflation meaning. Other causes include:

  • Supply of Money: Money supply on the market is regulated by monetary policy. The excess supply of money is the main source of inflation. Hence, the currency’s value fall. 
  • Fiscal Policy: It keeps tabs on the economy’s debt and expenditure. Increased debt leads to higher taxes and more money printed to pay off the debt. 
  • Exchange Rates: International market vulnerability depends on the dollar’s current value. Changes in the exchange rate impact the rate of inflation.

The Inflation Calculation Formula

Many pre-made inflation calculators are already available online. It is always preferable to be mindful of the fundamental approach to assure accuracy with a clear grasp of the calculations to comprehend inflation meaning.

CPI is the full form of the Consumer Price Index

(Final CPI Index Value / Starting CPI Value) x 100 = the per cent of the inflation rate.

Benefits of Inflation

This is how inflation can benefit. 

  • Positive effects on asset resale value. 
  • The ideal degree of inflation promotes consumption rather than saving.

Disadvantages of Inflation

Inflation causes the following issues.

  • Purchasers must give more money for goods and services. 
  • Increased prices are imposed on the economy.
  • Some prices rise initially, while others rise later.


A rise in prices is known as inflation meaning decreased buying power. Many economists argue that a 2 or 3% inflation rate is good for the economy since it encourages consumers to borrow more money and make more purchases, as lower inflation means lower interest rates. Thus, the government and central bank both make a consistent effort to maintain a cap on inflation. However, inflation can become an issue when it rises too quickly and dramatically. Items become more expensive, particularly if earnings do not increase at the same rates. Moreover, assets, especially cash, lose value due to inflation. Hence, monetary policy is used by governments and central banks to try to control inflation. It is important to keep inflation in check.

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1. Is inflation beneficial or not?

The widespread consensus is that too much and too little inflation harms an economy. Several economists support ta medium ground of 2% annual inflation, which is low to moderate. 

2. How can inflation be restrained?

One frequent strategy for managing inflation is to implement a restrictive monetary policy. A contractionary policy seeks to reduce the money available in an economy by lowering bond prices and raising interest rates. As a result, prices drop, inflation slows, and consumption declines. 

3. How can inflation be measured?

The Consumer Price Index, which calculates the proportional change in the cost of a basket of products and services that families typically use, is the most commonly used measure of inflation.

4. Can gold offer inflation protection?

Gold is seen as an inflation hedge. Rupee value typically declines when inflation increases, while gold increases in price.

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